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CISD (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing)

Debriefing (or “Critical Incident Stress Debriefing”, CISD) refers to a 7-phase, structured group discussion, usually provided 1 to 10 days post crisis, and designed to mitigate acute symptoms, assess the need for follow-up and, if possible, provide a sense of post-crisis psychological closure. Debriefings have always been conceived of as one component within a larger functional intervention framework. The effectiveness of CISM programs has been empirically validated through qualitative analyses, controlled investigations, and meta-analyses.[1]


  1. Mitchell, J. T. & Everly, G.S. (in press). CISM and CISD: Evolution, effects and outcomes. In B. Raphael & J. Wilson (Eds.). Psychological Debriefing. Everly, G.S. & Mitchell, J.T. (1997). Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM):A New Era and Standard of Care in Crisis Intervention . Ellicott City, MD: Chevron. Everly, 0., Flannery, R., & Mitchell, J. (in press). CISM: A review of literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal.