CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management)
CISM is a form of psychological "first aid" and represents a powerful, yet cost-effective approach to crisis response. CISM is a comprehensive, integrative, multicomponent crisis intervention system. Interventions range from pre-crisis, acute crisis, to the post-crisis phase. CISM is also considered comprehensive in that it consists of interventions which may be applied to individuals, small functional groups, large groups, families, organizations, and even communities. Interventions include stress management education, stress resistance, and crisis mitigation training for both individuals and organizations. Disasters or large-scale incidents, as well as, school and community disasters may require Rest, Information, and Transition Services (RITS), Crisis Management Briefings (“town meetings”), and staff advisement. Other components include one-on-one crisis intervention/counseling, family crisis intervention, as well as, organizational consultation. Follow-up and referral mechanisms are available for assessment and treatment, if necessary. Two interventions especially useful for the first responder community are defusings and debriefings (See definitions below).
- Mitchell, J. T. & Everly, G.S. (in press). CISM and CISD: Evolution, effects and outcomes. In B. Raphael & J. Wilson (Eds.). Psychological Debriefing. Everly, G.S. & Mitchell, J.T. (1997). Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM):A New Era and Standard of Care in Crisis Intervention . Ellicott City, MD: Chevron. Everly, 0., Flannery, R., & Mitchell, J. (in press). CISM: A review of literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal.